Jefferson County, AL

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Population

659,197

0.0491% decline

Median Age

37.6


Median Household Income

$50,709

1.05% growth

Poverty Rate

17.6%


Number of Employees

300,430

1.82% decline

Median Property Value

$160,200

5.39% growth

About

In 2017, Jefferson County, AL had a population of 659k people with a median age of 37.6 and a median household income of $50,709. Between 2016 and 2017 the population of Jefferson County, AL declined from 659,521 to 659,197, a -0.0491% decrease and its median household income grew from $50,180 to $50,709, a 1.05% increase.

The population of Jefferson County, AL is 49.8% White Alone, 43% Black or African American Alone, and 3.88% Hispanic or Latino. N/A% of the people in Jefferson County, AL speak a non-English language, and 97.3% are U.S. citizens.

The largest universities in Jefferson County, AL are University of Alabama at Birmingham (4,519 degrees awarded in 2016), Samford University (1,492 degrees), and Jefferson State Community College (1,433 degrees).

The median property value in Jefferson County, AL is $160,200, and the homeownership rate is 61.2%. Most people in Jefferson County, AL commute by Drove Alone, and the average commute time is 23.2 minutes. The average car ownership in Jefferson County, AL is 2 cars per household.

About the photo: Birmingham, AL

Economy

The economy of Jefferson County, AL employs 300k people. The largest industries in Jefferson County, AL are Health Care & Social Assistance (49,089 people), Retail Trade (32,856 people), and Educational Services (29,117 people), and the highest paying industries are Utilities ($68,636), Mining, Quarrying, & Oil & Gas Extraction ($57,384), and Management of Companies & Enterprises ($56,193).

Median household income in Jefferson County, AL is $50,709. Males in Jefferson County, AL have an average income that is 1.43 times higher than the average income of females, which is $41,415. The income inequality in Jefferson County, AL (measured using the Gini index) is 0.459, which is lower than than the national average.

Wages

Median Household Income

$50,709

2017 value

± $1,231

1.05%

1 Year Growth

± 3.68%

Households in Jefferson County, AL have a median annual income of $50,709, which is less than the median annual income of $60,336 across the entire United States. This is in comparison to a median income of $50,180 in 2016, which represents a 1.05% annual growth.

Look at the chart to see how the median household income in Jefferson County, AL compares to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Wage by Gender in Common Jobs

The PUMS dataset is not available at the County level, so we are showing data for Alabama.

$59,128

Average Male Salary

± $1,487

$41,415

Average Female Salary

± $1,053

In 2017, full-time male employees in Alabama made 1.43 times more than female employees.

This chart shows the gender-based wage disparity in the 5 most common occupations in Alabama by number of full-time employees.

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Wage by Race and Ethnicity in Common Jobs

The PUMS dataset is not available at the County level, so we are showing data for Alabama.

Highest Average Salaries by Race & Ethnicity

  1. Asian

    $55,342 ± $9,359

  2. White

    $49,497 ± $1,108

  3. American Indian and Alaska Native tribes specified; or American Indian or Alaska Native, not specified and no other races

    $40,310 ± $17,163

In 2017 the highest paid race/ethnicity of Alabama workers was Asian. These workers were paid 1.12 times more than White workers, who made the second highest salary of any race/ethnicity.

This chart shows the race- and ethnicity-based wage disparities in the 5 most common occupations in Alabama by number of full-time employees.

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Wage Distribution

The closest comparable wage GINI for Jefferson County, AL is from Alabama.

0.459

2017 Wage GINI

0.463

2016 Wage GINI

In 2017, the income inequality in Alabama was 0.459 according to the GINI calculation of the wage distribution. Income inequality had a 0.912% decline from 2016 to 2017, which means that wage distribution grew somewhat more even.

The 2017 the GINI for Alabama was lower than than the national average of 0.479. In other words, wages are distributed more evenly in Alabama in comparison to the national average.

This chart shows the number of workers in Alabama across various wage buckets compared to the national average.

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Income by Location

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Highest Median Household Income (Total)

  1. Census Tract 129.11

  2. Census Tract 108.02

  3. Census Tract 108.04

In 2017, the tract with the highest Median Household Income (Total) in Jefferson County, AL was Census Tract 129.11 with a value of $154,643, followed by Census Tract 108.02 and Census Tract 108.04, with respective values of $142,625 and $133,011.

The following map shows all of the tracts in Jefferson County, AL colored by their Median Household Income (Total).

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Poverty by Age and Gender

Females 25 - 34

Largest Demographic Living in Poverty

17.6% of the population for whom poverty status is determined in Jefferson County, AL (113k out of 645k people) live below the poverty line, a number that is higher than the national average of 13.4%. The largest demographic living in poverty are Females 25 - 34, followed by Females 18 - 24 and then Females 35 - 44.

The Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who classifies as impoverished. If a family's total income is less than the family's threshold than that family and every individual in it is considered to be living in poverty.

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Poverty by Race and Ethnicity

Largest Race or Ethnicity Living in Poverty

  1. Black

    71,144 ± 1,903

  2. White

    33,554 ± 1,356

  3. Hispanic

    8,254 ± 656

The most common racial or ethnic group living below the poverty line in Jefferson County, AL is Black, followed by White and Hispanic.

The Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who classifies as impoverished. If a family's total income is less than the family's threshold than that family and every individual in it is considered to be living in poverty.

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Occupations

Employment by Occupations

300k

2017 Value

± 9,362

-1.82%

1 Year decline

± 4.39%

From 2016 to 2017, employment in Jefferson County, AL declined at a rate of -1.82%, from 306k employees to 300k employees.

The most common job groups, by number of people living in Jefferson County, AL, are Office & Administrative Support Occupations (39,939 people), Sales & Related Occupations (35,236 people), and Management Occupations (28,858 people). This chart illustrates the share breakdown of the primary jobs held by residents of Jefferson County, AL.

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Most Common

The most common jobs held by residents of Jefferson County, AL, by number of employees, are Office & Administrative Support Occupations (39,939 people), Sales & Related Occupations (35,236 people), and Management Occupations (28,858 people).

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Most Specialized

Compared to other counties, Jefferson County, AL has an unusually high number of residents working as Health Technologists & Technicians (1.43 times higher than expected), Health Diagnosing & Treating Practitioners & Other Technical Occupations (1.3 times), and Community & Social Service Occupations (1.22 times).

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Highest Paid

The highest paid jobs held by residents of Jefferson County, AL, by median earnings, are Legal Occupations ($100,289), Architecture & Engineering Occupations ($72,274), and Computer, Engineering, & Science Occupations ($67,985).

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Industries

Employment by Industries

300k

2017 Value

± 9,362

-1.82%

1 Year decline

± 4.39%

From 2016 to 2017, employment in Jefferson County, AL declined at a rate of -1.82%, from 306k employees to 300k employees.

The most common employment sectors for those who live in Jefferson County, AL, are Health Care & Social Assistance (49,089 people), Retail Trade (32,856 people), and Educational Services (29,117 people). This chart shows the share breakdown of the primary industries for residents of Jefferson County, AL, though some of these residents may live in Jefferson County, AL and work somewhere else. Census data is tagged to a residential address, not a work address.

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Most Common

The most common industries in Jefferson County, AL, by number of employees, are Health Care & Social Assistance (49,089 people), Retail Trade (32,856 people), and Educational Services (29,117 people).

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Most Specialized

Compared to other counties, Jefferson County, AL has an unusually high number of Utilities (2.16 times higher than expected), Mining, Quarrying, & Oil & Gas Extraction (1.36 times), and Finance & Insurance (1.31 times) industries.

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Highest Paying

The highest paying industries in Jefferson County, AL, by median earnings, are Utilities ($68,636), Mining, Quarrying, & Oil & Gas Extraction ($57,384), and Management of Companies & Enterprises ($56,193).

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Domestic Trade

Domestic Production & Consumption

Domestic production and consumption consists of products and services shipped from Alabama to other states, or from other states to Alabama.

Top Domestic Production in Dollars

  1. $40.7B

  2. $28B

  3. $21.5B

In 2015, the top outbound Alabama product (by dollars) was Motorized vehicles with $40.7B, followed by Mixed freight ($28B) and Coal-n.e.c. ($21.5B).

The following chart shows the share of these products in relation to all outbound Alabama products.

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Domestic Trade Growth

Showing data for Alabama state.

$243B

2015 Value

$367B

Projected 2045 Value

50.7% growth

In 2015, total outbound Alabama trade was $243B. This is expected to increase 50.7% to $367B by 2045.

The following chart shows how the domestic outbound Alabama trade is projected to change in comparison to its neighboring states.

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Interstate Trade

Interstate trade consists of products and services shipped from Alabama to other states, or from other states to Alabama.

Most Common Trade Partners

  1. $25.3B

  2. $16.7B

  3. $14.5B

In 2015, the top outbound Alabama domestic partner for goods and services (by dollars) was Georgia with $25.3B, followed by Florida with $16.7B and Tennessee and $14.5B.

The following map shows the amount of trade that Alabama shares with each state (excluding itself).

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Health

90.8% of the population of Jefferson County, AL has health coverage, with 47.6% on employee plans, 17.4% on Medicaid, 11.8% on Medicare, 12.2% on non-group plans, and 1.88% on military or VA plans.

Per capita personal health care spending in the county of Jefferson County, AL was $7,281 in 2014. This is a 4.07% increase from the previous year ($6,996).

Primary care physicians in Jefferson County, AL see 943 patients per year on average, which represents a 0.426% increase from the previous year (939 patients). Compare this to dentists who see 1176 patients per year, and mental health providers who see 693 patients per year.

Comparing across all counties in the state, Greene County has the highest prevalence of diabetes (21.1%). Additionally, Macon County has the highest prevalence of adult obesity (47.8%)

Patient to Clinician Ratios

943 to 1

Patient to Primary Care Physician Ratio

Primary care physicians in Jefferson County, AL see an average of 943 patients per year. This represents a 0.426% increase from the previous year (939 patients).

The following chart shows how the number of patients seen by primary care physicians has been changing over time in Jefferson County, AL in comparison to neighboring states.

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Behavioral Health Conditions

Data only available at the state level.

State with the Highest Prevalence

  1. 8.26% of the population affected

  2. 8.13% of the population affected

  3. 7.98% of the population affected

In 2016, West Virginia had the highest prevalence of adults with major depressive episode, with 8.26% of the population affected. The second highest is Arkansas (8.13%), followed by New Hampshire (7.98%).

The following map shows the percent of individuals with major depressive episode by state over multiple years.

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Access and Quality

Data only available at state level.

Most prevalent states

  1. 19.2% of adults

  2. 17.9% of adults

  3. 17.6% of adults

In 2016, Mississippi had the highest prevalence of adults who haven't seen a doctor in the past 12 months due to cost, at 19.2%. It is followed by Texas (17.9%) and Louisiana (17.6%).

The following map shows the prevalence of adults who haven't seen a doctor in the past 12 months due to cost by state over multiple years.

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Health Care Spending

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for Alabama.

$7,281

Total Per Capita Spending on Personal Health Care 

$3,641

Per Enrollee Private Health Insurance Spending on Personal Health Care

$5,042

Per Enrollee Medicaid Spending on Personal Health Care

$10,267

Per Enrollee Medicare Spending on Personal Health Care

Between 2013 and 2014, all personal health care spending per capita in Alabama (including private, Medicare, and Medicaid) grew 4.07%, from $6,996 to $7,281.

The following chart shows how this spending changed over time in comparison to Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance spending, per enrollee.

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Health Care Coverage

9.19%

Uninsured

47.6%

Employer Coverage

17.4%

Medicaid

11.8%

Medicare

12.2%

Non-Group

1.88%

Military or VA

Between 2016 and 2017, the percent of uninsured citizens in Jefferson County, AL grew by 7.28% from 8.57% to 9.19%.

The following chart shows how the percent of uninsured individuals in Jefferson County, AL changed over time compared with the percent of individuals enrolled in various types of health insurance.

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Health Risks

Data available at the county level.

Most at risk counties

  1. 21.1% prevalence

  2. 20.9% prevalence

  3. 20.4% prevalence

Greene County has the highest prevalence of diabetes in Alabama, at 21.1%.

The following map shows the prevalence of diabetes in Alabama by county over multiple years.

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Diversity

Jefferson County, AL is home to a population of 659k people, from which 97.3% are citizens. As of 2017, 4.01% of Jefferson County, AL residents were born outside of the country (26.4k people).

The ethnic composition of the population of Jefferson County, AL is composed of 328k White Alone residents (49.8%), 283k Black or African American Alone residents (43%), 25.6k Hispanic or Latino residents (3.88%), 11.8k Asian Alone residents (1.79%), 7.37k Two or More Races residents (1.12%), 1.39k Some Other Race Alone residents (0.21%), 1.09k American Indian & Alaska Native Alone residents (0.166%), and 321 Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander Alone residents (0.0487%).

The most common foreign languages spoken in Jefferson County, AL are N/A.

Age

Age by Nativity

38

Median Native-Born Age

± 0.3

40

Median Foreign-Born Age

± 1.9

In 2017, the median age of all people in Jefferson County, AL was 37.6. Native-born citizens, with a median age of 38, were generally younger than than foreign-born citizens, with a median age of 40. But people in Jefferson County, AL are getting getting younger. In 2016, the average age of all Jefferson County, AL residents was 38.

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Heritage

Foreign-Born Population

4.01%

2017 Foreign-Born Population

26.4k people

3.92%

2016 Foreign-Born Population

25.9k people

As of 2017, 4.01% of Jefferson County, AL residents (26.4k people) were born outside of the United States, which is lower than the national average of 13.7%. In 2016, the percentage of foreign-born citizens in Jefferson County, AL was 3.92%, meaning that the rate has been increasing.

The following chart shows the percentage of foreign-born residents in Jefferson County, AL compared to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Global Diversity

The PUMS dataset is not available at the County level, so we are showing data for Alabama.

Most Common Origin

  1. Mexico

    49,351 ± 5,426 people

  2. Guatemala

    13,867 ± 2,887 people

  3. Korea

    10,864 ± 2,556 people

In 2017, the most common birthplace for the foreign-born residents of Alabama was Mexico, the natal country of 49,351 Alabama residents, followed by Guatemala with 13,867 and Korea with 10,864.

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Citizenship

97.3%

2017 Citizenship

97.1%

2016 Citizenship

As of 2017, 97.3% of Jefferson County, AL residents were US citizens, which is higher than the national average of 93.1%. In 2016, the percentage of US citizens in Jefferson County, AL was 97.1%, meaning that the rate of citizenship has been increasing.

The following chart shows US citizenship percentages in Jefferson County, AL compared to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Race and Ethnicity

Most Common

  1. White Alone

    328k ± 261

  2. Black or African American Alone

    283k ± 2.29k

  3. Hispanic or Latino

    25.6k ± 3.99k

In 2017, there were 1.16 times more White Alone residents (328k people) in Jefferson County, AL than any other race or ethnicity. There were 283k Black or African American Alone and 25.6k Hispanic or Latino residents, the second and third most common racial or ethnic groups.

The following bar chart shows the 8 races and ethnicities represented in Jefferson County, AL as a share of the total population.

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Non-English Speakers

Most Common Languages

  1. N/A

    N/A speakers (N/A%)

  2. N/A

    N/A speakers (N/A%)

  3. N/A

    N/A speakers (N/A%)

N/A% of Jefferson County, AL citizens are speakers of a non-English language, which is approximately the same as the national average of 21.8%. In N/A, the most common non-English language spoken in Jefferson County, AL was N/A. N/A% of the overall population of Jefferson County, AL are native N/A speakers. N/A% speak N/A and N/A% speak N/A, the next two most common languages.

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Military

Veterans

Most Common Service Period

  1. Vietnam

    11,326 ± 1,386

  2. Gulf War (1990s)

    6,563 ± 1,266

  3. Gulf War (2001-)

    4,720 ± 1,328

Jefferson County, AL has a large population of military personnel who served in Vietnam, 1.73 times greater than any other conflict.

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Education

In 2016, universities in Jefferson County, AL awarded 10,316 degrees. The student population of Jefferson County, AL is skewed towards women, with 16,999 male students and 27,510 female students.

Most students graduating from Universities in Jefferson County, AL are White (5,985 and 59.4%), followed by Black or African American (2,803 and 27.8%), Unknown (466 and 4.62%), and Asian (285 and 2.83%).

The largest universities in Jefferson County, AL by number of degrees awarded are University of Alabama at Birmingham (4,519 and 43.8%), Samford University (1,492 and 14.5%), and Jefferson State Community College (1,433 and 13.9%).

The most popular majors in Jefferson County, AL are Registered Nursing (1,165 and 11.3%), General Business Administration & Management (591 and 5.73%), and General Studies (282 and 2.73%).

The median tuition costs in Jefferson County, AL are $28,552 for private four year colleges, and $8,040 and $18,368 respectively, for public four year colleges for in-state students and out-of-state students.

Concentrations

Most Common

  1. 229 degrees awarded

  2. 414 degrees awarded

  3. 257 degrees awarded

In 2015, the most common concentation for Bachelors Degree recipients in Jefferson County, AL was General Psychology with 229 degrees awarded.

This visualization illustrates the percentage of students graduating with a Bachelors Degree from schools in Jefferson County, AL according to their major.

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Universities

Largest Universities by degrees awarded

  1. 4,519 degrees awarded

  2. 1,492 degrees awarded

  3. 1,433 degrees awarded

$8,040

Median In-State Public

$28,552

Median Private

In 2016, the Jefferson County, AL institution with the largest number of graduating students was University of Alabama at Birmingham with 4,519 degrees awarded.

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Student Gender for Common Institutions

3,914

Degrees Awarded to Men

6,402

Degrees Awarded to Women

In 2016, 3,914 men were awarded degrees from institutions in Jefferson County, AL, which is 0.611 times less than the 6,402 female students who received degrees in the same year.

This chart displays the gender disparity between the top 5 institutions in Jefferson County, AL by degrees awarded.

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Student Race and Ethnicity

Most Common Student Race or Ethnicity

  1. White

    5,985 degrees awarded

  2. Black or African American

    2,803 degrees awarded

  3. Unknown

    466 degrees awarded

In 2016 the majority of degrees awarded at institutions in Jefferson County, AL were to White students. These 5,985 degrees mean that there were 2.14 times more White students then the next closest race/ethnicity group, Black or African American, with 2,803 degrees awarded.

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Housing & Living

The median property value in Jefferson County, AL was $160,200 in 2017, which is 0.736 times smaller than the national average of $217,600. Between 2016 and 2017 the median property value increased from $152,000 to $160,200, a 5.39% increase. The homeownership rate in Jefferson County, AL is 61.2%, which is lower than the national average of 63.9%. People in Jefferson County, AL have an average commute time of 23.2 minutes, and they commute by Drove Alone. Car ownership in Jefferson County, AL is approximately the same as the national average, with an average of 2 cars per household.

Income

Household Income

Please note that the buckets used in this visualization were not evenly distributed by ACS when publishing the data.

$50,709

Median Household Income

± $1,231

259k

Number of Households

± 8,120

In 2017, the median household income of the 259k households in Jefferson County, AL grew to $50,709 from the previous year's value of $50,180.

The following chart displays the households in Jefferson County, AL distributed between a series of income buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. The largest share of households have an income in the $75k - $100k range.

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Housing

Property Value

$160,200

2017 Median

± $5,678

$152,000

2016 Median

± $4,068

In 2017, the median property value in Jefferson County, AL grew to to $160,200 from the previous year's value of $152,000.

The following charts display, first, the property values in Jefferson County, AL compared to it's parent and neighbor geographies and, second, owner-occupied housing units distributed between a series of property value buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. In Jefferson County, AL the largest share of households have a property value in the $300k - $400k range.

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Property Taxes

< $800

Average Range

This chart shows the households in Jefferson County, AL distributed between a series of property tax buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. In Jefferson County, AL the largest share of households pay taxes in the < $800 range.

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Rent vs Own

61.2%

2017 Homeownership

62.8%

2016 Homeownership

In 2017, 61.2% of the housing units in Jefferson County, AL were occupied by their owner. This percentage declined from the previous year's rate of 62.8%.

This percentage of owner-occupation is lower than the national average of 63.9%. This chart shows the ownership percentage in Jefferson County, AL compared it's parent and neighboring geographies.

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Transportation

Car Ownership

2 cars

Average Number

The following chart displays the households in Jefferson County, AL distributed between a series of car ownership buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. The largest share of households in Jefferson County, AL have 2 cars, followed by 1 car.

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Commute Time

23.2 minutes

Average Travel Time

Using averages, employees in Jefferson County, AL have a shorter commute time (23.2 minutes) than the normal US worker (25.5 minutes). Additionally, 1.29% of the workforce in Jefferson County, AL have "super commutes" in excess of 90 minutes.

The chart below shows how the median household income in Jefferson County, AL compares to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Commuter Transportation

Most Common Method of Travel

  1. Drove Alone

    82.9%

  2. Carpooled

    9.43%

  3. Worked At Home

    3.71%

In 2017, the most common method of travel for workers in Jefferson County, AL was Drove Alone (82.9%), followed by those who Carpooled (9.43%) and those who Worked At Home (3.71%).

The following chart shows the number of households using each mode of transportation over time, using a logarithmic scale on the y-axis to help better show variations in the smaller means of commuting.

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