Alabama

State

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2019 Population
4.9M
0.313% 1-year growth
US Senator
Richard Shelby
Republican Party
US Senator
Tommy Tuberville
Republican Party
2019 Median Age
39.4
0.254% 1-year increase
2019 Poverty Rate
16.7%
4.27% 1-year decrease
2019 Median Household Income
$51,734
3.76% 1-year growth
2019 Median Property Value
$154,000
4.12% 1-year growth
2019 Employed Population
2.07M
3.35% 1-year growth

About

In 2019, Alabama had a population of 4.9M people with a median age of 39.4 and a median household income of $51,734. Between 2018 and 2019 the population of Alabama grew from 4.89M to 4.9M, a 0.313% increase and its median household income grew from $49,861 to $51,734, a 3.76% increase.

The 5 largest ethnic groups in Alabama are White (Non-Hispanic) (65.1%), Black or African American (Non-Hispanic) (26.8%), White (Hispanic) (2.72%), Two+ (Non-Hispanic) (1.68%), and Asian (Non-Hispanic) (1.33%). 5.53% of the households in Alabama speak a non-English language at home as their primary language.

98% of the residents in Alabama are U.S. citizens.

The largest universities in Alabama are The University of Alabama (9,728 degrees awarded in 2019), Columbia Southern University (7,635 degrees), and Auburn University (7,521 degrees).

In 2019, the median property value in Alabama was $154,000, and the homeownership rate was 68.8%. Most people in Alabama drove alone to work, and the average commute time was 24.6 minutes. The average car ownership in Alabama was 2 cars per household.

Alabama borders Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee.

About the photo: Birmingham, AL

Diversity

Alabama is home to a population of 4.9M people, from which 98% are citizens. As of 2019, 8.52% of Alabama residents were born outside of the country (418k people).

In 2019, there were 2.43 times more White (Non-Hispanic) residents (3.19M people) in Alabama than any other race or ethnicity. There were 1.31M Black or African American (Non-Hispanic) and 133k White (Hispanic) residents, the second and third most common ethnic groups.

The most common foreign languages spoken in Alabama are Spanish (165,933 speakers), Chinese (Incl. Mandarin, Cantonese) (10,767 speakers), and Korean (10,241 speakers).

Race and Ethnicity

Race and Ethnicity

The 3 largest ethnic groups in Alabama
  1. White (Non-Hispanic)
    3.19M ± 2.6k
  2. Black or African American (Non-Hispanic)
    1.31M ± 7.59k
  3. White (Hispanic)
    133k ± 7.92k
4.47%
Hispanic Population
219k people

In 2019, there were 2.43 times more White (Non-Hispanic) residents (3.19M people) in Alabama than any other race or ethnicity. There were 1.31M Black or African American (Non-Hispanic) and 133k White (Hispanic) residents, the second and third most common ethnic groups.

4.47% of the people in Alabama are hispanic (219k people).

The following chart shows the 7 races represented in Alabama as a share of the total population.

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Non-English Speakers

Most Common Languages
  1. Spanish
    165,933 speakers (3.59%)
  2. Chinese (Incl. Mandarin, Cantonese)
    10,767 speakers (0.233%)
  3. Korean
    10,241 speakers (0.222%)

5.53% of Alabama citizens are speakers of a non-English language, which is lower than the national average of 22%.

In 2019, the most common non-English language spoken in Alabama was Spanish. 3.59% of the overall population of Alabama are native Spanish speakers. 0.233% speak Chinese (Incl. Mandarin, Cantonese) and 0.222% speak Korean, the next two most common languages.

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Heritage

Foreign-Born Population

8.52%
2019 Foreign-Born Population
418k people
3.44%
2018 Foreign-Born Population
168k people

As of 2019, 8.52% of Alabama residents (418k people) were born outside of the United States, which is lower than the national average of 34%. In 2018, the percentage of foreign-born citizens in Alabama was 3.44%, meaning that the rate has been increasing.

The following chart shows the percentage of foreign-born residents in Alabama compared to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Age by Nativity

39
Median Native-Born Age
± 0.2
40
Median Foreign-Born Age
± 1.3

In 2019, the median age of all people in Alabama was 39.4. Native-born citizens, with a median age of 39, were generally younger than foreign-born citizens, with a median age of 40. But people in Alabama are getting getting older. In 2018, the average age of all Alabama residents was 39.

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Global Diversity

Most Common Origin
  1. Mexico
    42,065 ± 5,014 people
  2. Guatemala
    21,465 ± 3,589 people
  3. India
    11,266 ± 2,603 people

In 2019, the most common birthplace for the foreign-born residents of Alabama was Mexico, the natal country of 42,065 Alabama residents, followed by Guatemala with 21,465 and India with 11,266.

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Citizenship

98%
2019 Citizenship
98%
2018 Citizenship

As of 2019, 98% of Alabama residents were US citizens, which is higher than the national average of 93.4%. In 2018, the percentage of US citizens in Alabama was 98%, meaning that the rate of citizenship has been decreasing.

The following chart shows US citizenship percentages in Alabama compared to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Military

Veterans

Most Common Service Period
  1. Vietnam
    103,620 ± 4,287
  2. Gulf War (2001-)
    77,447 ± 5,331
  3. Gulf War (1990s)
    51,858 ± 3,759

Alabama has a large population of military personnel who served in Vietnam, 1.34 times greater than any other conflict.

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COVID-19

Daily New Cases by Date

Hospitalization data for some states may be delayed or not reported.
Y-Axis

This chart shows the number of COVID-19 daily new cases by date in Alabama, as a 7-day rolling average, compared with the four states with the most similar number of confirmed cases.

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Unemployment Insurance Claims

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for Alabama.

This chart shows weekly unemployment insurance claims in Alabama (not-seasonally adjusted) compared with the four states with the most similar impact.

The most recent data point uses Advance State Claims data, which can be revised in subsequent weeks.

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Employment by Industry Sector

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for Alabama.
Y-Axis
8.45%
Year-over-year growth
Employment change between May 2020 and May 2021

As of May 2021, there are 145M people employed in Alabama. This represents a 8.45% increase in employment when compared to May 2020.

The following chart shows monthly employment numbers for each industry sector in Alabama.

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Community Mobility

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for Alabama.

This chart presents movement trends over time in the state of Alabama across different categories of places such as retail and recreation, groceries and pharmacies, parks, transit stations, workplaces, and residential.

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Economy

Median household income in Alabama is $51,734. In 2019, the county with the highest Median Household Income in Alabama was Shelby County, AL with a value of $75,614, followed by Madison County, AL and St. Clair County, AL, with respective values of $67,930 and $67,487.

Males in Alabama have an average income that is 1.41 times higher than the average income of females, which is $43,477. The income inequality in Alabama (measured using the Gini index) is 0.454, which is lower than than the national average.

The economy of Alabama employs 2.07M people. The largest industries in Alabama are Restaurants & Food Services (140,932 people), Construction (126,131 people), and Elementary & secondary schools (120,550 people), and the highest paying industries are Software publishing ($143,096), Securities, commodities, funds, trusts & other financial investments ($110,800), and Engine, turbine, & power transmission equipment manufacturing ($99,721).

Wages

Median Household Income

$51,734
2019 value
± $600
3.76%
1 Year Growth
± 1.88%

Households in Alabama have a median annual income of $51,734, which is less than the median annual income of $65,712 across the entire United States. This is in comparison to a median income of $49,861 in 2018, which represents a 3.76% annual growth.

The following chart shows how the median household income in Alabama compares to that of its neighboring and parent geographies.

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Wage by Gender in Common Jobs

$61,464
Average Male Salary in Alabama
± $1,476
$43,477
Average Female Salary in Alabama
± $1,033

In 2019, full-time male employees in Alabama made 1.41 times more than female employees.

This chart shows the gender-based wage disparity in the 5 most common occupations in Alabama by number of full-time employees.

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Wage by Race and Ethnicity in Common Jobs

Highest Average Salaries by Race & Ethnicity in Alabama
  1. Asian
    $56,928 ± $9,507
  2. White
    $51,197 ± $1,103
  3. American Indian
    $40,787 ± $8,987

In 2019 the highest paid race/ethnicity of Alabama workers was Asian. These workers were paid 1.11 times more than White workers, who made the second highest salary of any race/ethnicity in Alabama.

This chart shows the race- and ethnicity-based wage disparities in the 5 most common occupations in Alabama by number of full-time employees.

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Wage Distribution

0.454
2019 Wage GINI in Alabama
0.461
2018 Wage GINI in Alabama

In 2019, the income inequality in Alabama was 0.454 according to the GINI calculation of the wage distribution. Income inequality had a 1.54% decline from 2018 to 2019, which means that wage distribution grew somewhat more even. The GINI for Alabama was lower than than the national average of 0.478. In other words, wages are distributed more evenly in Alabama in comparison to the national average.

This chart shows the number of workers in Alabama across various wage buckets compared to the national average.

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Income by Location

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Race/Ethnicity
Highest Median Household Income (Total)

In 2019, the county with the highest Median Household Income (Total) in Alabama was Shelby County, AL with a value of $75,614, followed by Madison County, AL and St. Clair County, AL, with respective values of $67,930 and $67,487.

The following map shows all of the counties in Alabama colored by their Median Household Income (Total).

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Poverty by Age and Gender

Females 25 - 34
Largest Demographic Living in Poverty

16.7% of the population for whom poverty status is determined in Alabama (796k out of 4.75M people) live below the poverty line, a number that is higher than the national average of 12.3%. The largest demographic living in poverty are Females 25 - 34, followed by Females 18 - 24 and then Females 35 - 44.

The Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who classifies as impoverished. If a family's total income is less than the family's threshold than that family and every individual in it is considered to be living in poverty.

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Poverty by Race and Ethnicity

Largest Race or Ethnicity Living in Poverty
  1. White
    400,779 ± 4,841
  2. Black
    338,102 ± 4,341
  3. Hispanic
    60,908 ± 1,930

The most common racial or ethnic group living below the poverty line in Alabama is White, followed by Black and Hispanic.

The Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who classifies as impoverished. If a family's total income is less than the family's threshold than that family and every individual in it is considered to be living in poverty.

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Occupations

Employment by Occupations

2.07M
2019 Value
3.35%
1 Year growth
± 3.35%

From 2018 to 2019, employment in Alabama grew at a rate of 3.35%, from 2M employees to 2.07M employees.

The most common job groups, by number of people living in Alabama, are Cashiers (61,386 people), Driver/sales workers & truck drivers (61,018 people), and Registered nurses (57,501 people). This chart illustrates the share breakdown of the primary jobs held by residents of Alabama.

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Most Common

The most common jobs held by residents of Alabama, by number of employees, are Cashiers (61,386 people), Driver/sales workers & truck drivers (61,018 people), and Registered nurses (57,501 people).

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Most Specialized

Compared to other states, Alabama has an unusually high number of residents working as Textile machine setters, operators, and tenders (4.27 times higher than expected), Other machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic (3.41 times), and Woodworking machine setters, operators, & tenders, except sawing (3.2 times).

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Highest Paid

The highest paid jobs held by residents of Alabama, by average salary, are Surgeons ($237,725), Physicians ($234,925), and Dentists ($220,431).

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Industries

Employment by Industries

2.07M
2019 Value
3.35%
1 Year growth
± 3.35%

From 2018 to 2019, employment in Alabama grew at a rate of 3.35%, from 2M employees to 2.07M employees.

The most common employment sectors for those who live in Alabama, are Restaurants & Food Services (140,932 people), Construction (126,131 people), and Elementary & secondary schools (120,550 people). This chart shows the share breakdown of the primary industries for residents of Alabama, though some of these residents may live in Alabama and work somewhere else. Census data is tagged to a residential address, not a work address.

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Most Common

The most common industries in Alabama, by number of employees, are Restaurants & Food Services (140,932 people), Construction (126,131 people), and Elementary & secondary schools (120,550 people).

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Most Specialized

Compared to other states, Alabama has an unusually high number of Fiber, yarn, & thread mills (6.05 times higher than expected), Knitting fabric mills, & apparel knitting mills (5.48 times), and Other transportation equipment manufacturing (5.44 times) industries.

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Domestic Trade

Domestic Production & Consumption

Domestic production and consumption consists of products and services shipped from Alabama to other states, or from other states to Alabama.
Top Domestic Production in Dollars
  1. $52.4B
  2. $29.3B
  3. $21.2B

In 2018, the top outbound Alabama product (by dollars) was Motorized vehicles with $52.4B, followed by Mixed freight ($29.3B) and Coal-n.e.c. ($21.2B).

The following chart shows the share of these products in relation to all outbound Alabama products.

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Domestic Trade Growth

Showing data for Alabama.
$280B
2018 Value in Alabama
$481B
Projected 2045 Value in Alabama
71.8% growth

In 2018, total outbound Alabama trade was $280B. This is expected to increase 71.8% to $481B by 2045.

The following chart shows how the domestic outbound Alabama trade is projected to change in comparison to its neighboring states.

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Interstate Trade

Interstate trade consists of products and services shipped from Alabama to other states, or from other states to Alabama.
Most Common Trade Partners
  1. $31.8B
  2. $17.8B
  3. $14.7B

In 2018, the top outbound Alabama domestic partner for goods and services (by dollars) was Georgia with $31.8B, followed by Florida with $17.8B and Tennessee and $14.7B.

The following map shows the amount of trade that Alabama shares with each state (excluding itself).

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Civics

In the 2016 presidential election, the popular vote in Alabama went to Donald J. Trump with 62.1% of the vote. The runner-up was Hillary Rodham Clinton (34.4%), followed by Gary Johnson (2.09%). The most partisan county was Winston County, AL with 89.5% of the vote going to Donald J. Trump running for the Republican Party.

Richard Shelby and Tommy Tuberville are the senators currently representing the state of Alabama. In the United States, senators are elected to 6-year terms with the terms for individual senators staggered.

Alabama is currently represented by 7 members in the U.S. house, and members of the House of Representives are elected to 2-year terms.

Presidential Popular Vote by County

Showing data up to the 2016 election. Updated election results are currently being processed, and will be released in the coming months.
Donald J. Trump
Popular Vote for Alabama
62.1% for the Republican Party
Most Partisan Counties in Alabama
  1. 89.5% for Donald J. Trump (Republican Party)
  2. 89.3% for Donald J. Trump (Republican Party)
  3. 87.4% for Donald J. Trump (Republican Party)

In the 2016 presidential election, the most partisan county in Alabama was Winston County, AL with 89.5% of the vote going to Donald J. Trump running for the Republican Party.

The following map shows the counties in Alabama colored by their party leaning.

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US Senators from Alabama

Richard Shelby
Senator from Alabama3
Assumed office on January 3, 1987
Tommy Tuberville
Senator from Alabama2
Assumed office on January 3, 2021

Richard Shelby and Tommy Tuberville are the senators currently representing Alabama.

In the United States, senators are elected to 6-year terms with the terms for individual senators staggered.

The following chart shows elected senators in Alabama over time, excluding special elections, colored by their political party.

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US Representatives from Alabama

Alabama is currently represented by 7 members in the U.S. house.

Members of the House of Representives are elected to 2-year terms, and the following chart shows the how the members for Alabama have changed over time starting in 2008.

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Education

In 2019, universities in Alabama awarded 78,630 degrees. The student population of Alabama is skewed towards women, with 128,637 male students and 176,836 female students.

Most students graduating from Universities in Alabama are White (50,481 and 66.1%), followed by Black or African American (16,910 and 22.1%), Hispanic or Latino (2,789 and 3.65%), and Unknown (2,384 and 3.12%).

The largest universities in Alabama by number of degrees awarded are The University of Alabama (9,728 and 12.4%), Columbia Southern University (7,635 and 9.71%), and Auburn University (7,521 and 9.57%).

The most popular majors in Alabama are General Business Administration & Management (6,357 and 8.08%), Registered Nursing (6,282 and 7.99%), and General Studies (5,024 and 6.39%).

The median tuition costs in Alabama are $16,993 for private four year colleges, and $8,855 and $18,700 respectively, for public four year colleges for in-state students and out-of-state students.

Concentrations

Most Common
  1. 3,207 degree-majorss awarded
  2. 2,314 degree-majorss awarded
  3. 1,402 degree-majorss awarded

In 2019, the most common concentation for Bachelors Degree recipients in Alabama was General Business Administration & Management with 3,207 degrees awarded.

This visualization illustrates the percentage of students graduating with a Bachelors Degree from schools in Alabama according to their major.

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Universities

Largest Universities by degrees awarded
  1. 9,728 degrees awarded
  2. 7,635 degrees awarded
  3. 7,521 degrees awarded
$8,855
Median In-State Public
$16,993
Median Private

In 2019, the Alabama institution with the largest number of graduating students was The University of Alabama with 9,728 degrees awarded.

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Student Gender for Common Institutions

34,182
Degrees Awarded to Men
44,448
Degrees Awarded to Women

In 2019, 34,182 men were awarded degrees from institutions in Alabama, which is 0.769 times less than the 44,448 female students who received degrees in the same year.

This chart displays the gender disparity between the top 5 institutions in Alabama by degrees awarded.

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Student Race and Ethnicity

Most Common Student Race or Ethnicity
  1. White
    50,481 degrees awarded
  2. Black or African American
    16,910 degrees awarded
  3. Hispanic or Latino
    2,789 degrees awarded

In 2019 the most common race/ethnicity group awarded degrees at institutions in Alabama was White students. These 50,481 degrees mean that there were 2.99 times more degrees awarded to White students then the next closest race/ethnicity group, Black or African American, with 16,910 degrees awarded.

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Housing & Living

The median property value in Alabama was $154,000 in 2019, which is 0.64 times smaller than the national average of $240,500. Between 2018 and 2019 the median property value increased from $147,900 to $154,000, a 4.12% increase. The homeownership rate in Alabama is 68.8%, which is higher than the national average of 64.1%. People in Alabama have an average commute time of 24.6 minutes, and they drove alone to work. Car ownership in Alabama is approximately the same as the national average, with an average of 2 cars per household.

Housing

Property Value

$154,000
2019 Median
± $2,032
$147,900
2018 Median
± $2,304

In 2019, the median property value in Alabama grew to to $154,000 from the previous year's value of $147,900.

The following charts display, first, the property values in Alabama compared to it's parent and neighbor geographies and, second, owner-occupied housing units distributed between a series of property value buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. In Alabama the largest share of households have a property value in the $200k - $250k range.

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Household Income

Please note that the buckets used in this visualization were not evenly distributed by ACS when publishing the data.
$51,734
Median Household Income
± $600
1.9M
Number of Households
± 23,106

In 2019, the median household income of the 1.9M households in Alabama grew to $51,734 from the previous year's value of $49,861.

The following chart displays the households in Alabama distributed between a series of income buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. The largest share of households have an income in the $75k - $100k range.

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Property Taxes

< $800
Average Range

This chart shows the households in Alabama distributed between a series of property tax buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. In Alabama the largest share of households pay taxes in the < $800 range.

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Rent vs Own

68.8%
2019 Homeownership
68%
2018 Homeownership

In 2019, 68.8% of the housing units in Alabama were occupied by their owner. This percentage grew from the previous year's rate of 68%.

This percentage of owner-occupation is higher than the national average of 64.1%. This chart shows the ownership percentage in Alabama compared it's parent and neighboring geographies.

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Commute Time

24.6 minutes
Average Travel Time

Using averages, employees in Alabama have a shorter commute time (24.6 minutes) than the normal US worker (26 minutes). Additionally, 2.19% of the workforce in Alabama have "super commutes" in excess of 90 minutes.

The chart below shows how the median household income in Alabama compares to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Commuter Transportation

Most Common Commute in 2019
  1. Drove Alone (85.2%)
  2. Carpooled (8.67%)
  3. Worked At Home (3.39%)

In 2019, 85.2% of workers in Alabama drove alone to work, followed by those who carpooled to work (8.67%) and those who worked at home (3.39%).

The following chart shows the number of households using each mode of transportation over time, using a logarithmic scale on the y-axis to help better show variations in the smaller means of commuting.

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Transportation

Car Ownership

2 cars
Average Number

The following chart displays the households in Alabama distributed between a series of car ownership buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. The largest share of households in Alabama have 2 cars, followed by false.

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Health

90.3% of the population of Alabama has health coverage, with 45.3% on employee plans, 16.3% on Medicaid, 13% on Medicare, 13.3% on non-group plans, and 2.31% on military or VA plans.

Per capita personal health care spending in Alabama was $7,281 in 2014. This is a 4.07% increase from the previous year ($6,996).

Primary care physicians in Alabama see 1534 patients per year on average, which represents a 0.583% decrease from the previous year (1543 patients). Compare this to dentists who see 2005 patients per year, and mental health providers who see 923 patients per year.

Comparing across all counties in the state, Bullock County has the highest prevalence of diabetes (29.5%). Additionally, Macon County has the highest prevalence of adult obesity (50.9%)

Patient to Clinician Ratios

1,534 to 1
Patient to Primary Care Physician Ratio in Alabama

Primary care physicians in Alabama see an average of 1,534 patients per year. This represents a 0.583% decrease from the previous year (1,543 patients).

The following chart shows how the number of patients seen by primary care physicians has been changing over time in Alabama in comparison to its neighboring geographies.

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Behavioral Health Conditions

Data only available at the state level.
State with the Highest Prevalence
  1. 8.26% of the population affected
  2. 8.13% of the population affected
  3. 7.98% of the population affected

In 2016, West Virginia had the highest prevalence of adults with major depressive episode, with 8.26% of the population affected. The second highest is Arkansas (8.13%), followed by New Hampshire (7.98%).

The following map shows the percent of individuals with major depressive episode by state over multiple years.

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Access and Quality

Data only available at state level.
Most prevalent states
  1. 19.2% of adults
  2. 17.9% of adults
  3. 17.6% of adults

In 2016, Mississippi had the highest prevalence of adults who haven't seen a doctor in the past 12 months due to cost, at 19.2%. It is followed by Texas (17.9%) and Louisiana (17.6%).

The following map shows the prevalence of adults who haven't seen a doctor in the past 12 months due to cost by state over multiple years.

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Health Care Spending

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for Alabama.
$7,281
Total Per Capita Spending on Personal Health Care in Alabama
$3,641
Per Enrollee Private Health Insurance Spending on Personal Health Care
$5,042
Per Enrollee Medicaid Spending on Personal Health Care
$10,267
Per Enrollee Medicare Spending on Personal Health Care

Between 2013 and 2014, all personal health care spending per capita in Alabama (including private, Medicare, and Medicaid) grew 4.07%, from $6,996 to $7,281.

The following chart shows how this spending changed over time in comparison to Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance spending, per enrollee.

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Health Care Coverage

9.72%
Uninsured
45.3%
Employer Coverage
16.3%
Medicaid
13%
Medicare
13.3%
Non-Group
2.31%
Military or VA

Between 2018 and 2019, the percent of uninsured citizens in Alabama declined by 2.82% from 10% to 9.72%.

The following chart shows how the percent of uninsured individuals in Alabama changed over time compared with the percent of individuals enrolled in various types of health insurance.

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Health Risks

Data available at the county level.
Most at risk counties
  1. 29.5% prevalence
  2. 25.6% prevalence
  3. 24.8% prevalence

Bullock County has the highest prevalence of diabetes in Alabama, at 29.5%.

The following map shows the prevalence of diabetes in Alabama by county over multiple years.

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